ROMANTICISM – Issues of Gender and/or Sexuality

Romanticism was a literary period of change, a breaking away from the rules that governed thought, and creative endeavour.  There was a freeing up of subject matter, writers using the common man and experience instead of lofty unrealistic plots and characters.  This use of the common subject also released the writers from constraints re sexuality and gender presentation.  They became free to utilise previously taboo topics, such as confinement, adultery, and physical seduction.

For women … the nineties … the comparatively new idea of “free love” as well as …. a new kind of literary era, one whose spirit was, if not dominated by literary women, at least shared and shaped by female imagin- ations.  (Gilbert, Chopin, 1994, p. 277)

Writers focussed on individual psychology, the inner lives of their protagonists as they dealt with the tribulations and complications of their external lives.  They were seen not only as part of their society, affected by its rules and attitudes, but also as having a personal identity separate from the social.  Self-contained individuals at one with the natural landscape in which they operated, Romanticists questioned their own relationship with their world and universe.  They believed that Nature had a spiritual power, a moral agency, which American Romantic writers used symbolically in the lives of their protagonists.

According to Abrams, gender “constitute[s] what is masculine and what is feminine – … largely … cultural constructs that were generated by the omnipresent patriarchal biases of our civilization.” (Abrams, 1993, p. 235)  He goes on to say that  “the masculine in our culture has come to be identified as active, dominating, adventurous, rational, creative; the feminine, by systematic opposition to such traits, has come to be identified as passive, acquiescent, timid, emotional, and conventional.” (ibid, p. 235)

As a result of Romanticism, the question of personal fulfillment, personal identity, the right to expression and individual freedom, and the stress on individuals as individuals, came about. Individual psychological entities of increasing complexity were written about, with needs and sexual desires which drove them into conflict with society. In the upper classes, women who became aware of their sexuality and broke the social rules were punished or destroyed.  A wife’s adultery was an affront to the patriarch of the time, resulting in imprisonment, while male adultery was unofficially sanctioned, resulting only in fines. If women left their relationship then they needed to be able to support themselves, to earn a living.

In her novel The Awakening, Kate Chopin looked at Edna’s struggles against the patriarchal society, her relationship with her husband as an owned possession, not allowed to initiate sexual relations, but expected to comply whenever her husband wished her to, and her role of wife and mother.  Brought up in Presbyterian Kentucky, Edna’s

marriage to Leonce Pontellier was purely an accident …. He pleased her; his absolute devotion flattered her. Add to this the violent opposition of her father and her sister Margaret to her marriage with a Catholic, and we need seek no further for the motives which led her to accept [him].” (Chopin, 1994, p. 18)

With her puritanical upbringing, she found herself among the Creole society whose characteristics as the book demonstrates were openness, sensuality, hedonism, and a kind of mixed gender game.  The role of the mother was central to the family – Creole women were brought up to be “tender, loving mothers, [who] care for the health and beauty of their children [and to whom] …. Women’s rights… are the right to love and be loved, and to name the babies”. (Shaffter, 1892, ibid, pp. 138-9)  She found their openness and lack of prudery difficult to deal with, and failed to live up to her French speaking Creole husband’s expectations.

Edna’s sexual awakening began with Robert Lebrun.  Culturally and linguistically outside the culture in which she grew up, Edna misinterpreted Robert’s intentions and attentions, although the flirtation was accepted by her husband and the other Creoles. In the social role-playing she was inadequate to the situation, not bred or educated to it, and cut adrift from the Protestant constraints.  Psychological motives caused Edna dis-satisfaction with the society she was in, her misreading of it and her mis-recognition of its boundaries prompted her to search for new love.  The learning situation into which she was placed, involved her loosening of the ties that bound her.

Another outlet for breaking the patriarchal social mould was her unchaperoned trips to the races with Arobin. Later when making love with him at home “[i]t was the first kiss of her life to which her nature had really responded.  It was a flaming torch that kindled desire. …. Edna cried a little that night after Arobin left her.” (ibid, p. 80)   Edna was unashamed of her relationship with Arobin felt no guilt for her infidelity to her husband, but regret that it had not been her love, Robert.  This is an example of how social and literary rules were broken by the Romantic writers.  Prior to them love in literature had remained as an idealised rather than a physical reality.

Edna followed her instincts when leaving Leonce – it was not carefully planned, but impulsive.  She let fate dictate her actions. Edna gained power by learning to swim, by her painting, and by her new home, the pigeon house.  At that time these were big steps for a woman to take. In 19th century novels of adultery, women were constructed as individuals with desire for fulfillment that overrode any other facet of their lives.  Edna was the epitome of this – she wanted sexual fulfillment.  Sex was something to be acknowledged and valued, not just as society dictated for procreation and man’s pleasure.

According to Donald Ringe, in his article ‘Romantic Imagery’,

Edna Pontellier feels contradictory impulses impelling her, impulses that … reveal that she is “beginning to realize her position in the universe as a human being, and to recognize her relations as an individual to the world within and about her” …. – an awakening of [her] self as important …. [that] resembles the transcendent- alist theory of self-discovery”. (Ringe, ibid, pp. 222-3, 224, 223)

Realising her relationship with Robert would eventually be a repetition of that with Leonce, Edna turned impulsively to the sea. Nature and culture were intersected by the sea, Chopin using it symbolically as a signifier of her unconscious, of seduction, of her own sexuality/femininity.  By her acceptance of her sexual awakening, Edna rid herself of the constraining society.  Defeated by society and its demands, by turning her back on them she also triumphed.

          An acceptable ending for a Romantic novel, even one that pushed the boundaries as this one did, Edna’s suicide was ambivalent.  It was realistic – the patriarchal society placed women in impossible often intolerable situations with only one apparent solution; and because women’s success without a man was a threat to male society, male authors could not allow it to occur, without being seen as encouraging immorality, and a break-down of law in society.

The use of Nature in the form of birds to symbolise Edna’s condition and her stages of awakening, was Romantic.  Initially aligned with the caged parrot, she moves to the Pigeon house “which pleased her…. There was with her a feeling of having descended in the social scale, with a corresponding sense of having risen in the spiritual.” (Chopin, 1994, p. 89)  She was free to come and go but was domesticated.  Finally Chopin aligned Edna with the maimed bird as she swam to her death.  This symbolism represents the condition of women at the turn of the century, constrained to fit specific gender roles dictated by the patriarchy.

(C)  Jud House  15/11/1998


Abrams, M.H. (1993)  A Glossary of Literary Terms 6th Edition  Fort Worth:  Harcourt Brace College Publishers.

Sandra M Gilbert – ‘The Second Coming of Aphrodite’ in Chopin, Kate (Culley, M: Editor) (1994)  The Awakening  New York:  W W Norton & Company

Donald A Ringe – ‘Romantic Imagery’ in Chopin, Kate (Culley, M: Editor) (1994)  The Awakening  New York:  W W Norton & Company

Mary L Shaffter – ‘Creole Women’   in Chopin, Kate (Culley, M: Editor) (1994)  The Awakening  New York:  W W Norton & Company


George Arms – Contrasting Forces in the Novel’

Cyrille Arnavon – ‘An American Madame Bovary’

Jules Chametzky – Edna and the “Woman Question”’

Kenneth Eble – ‘A Forgotten Novel’

Marie Fletcher – ‘The Southern Woman in Fiction’

Lewis Leary – ‘Kate Chopin and Walt Whitman’

John R May – Local Colour in The Awakening’

Elaine Showalter – ‘Chopin and American Women Writers’

George M Spangler – ‘The Ending of the Novel’

Per Seyersted – Kate Chopin and the American Realists’

Helen Taylor – ‘Gender, Race, and Region’

Larzer Ziff – ‘From The American 1890s’

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ROMANTICISM – Wordsworth, Coleridge, Emerson, Whitman

Romanticism is the term used to denote a period and style of literature that involved the moving away from the traditional Neoclassic structure and subject matter, as a result of “a dissatisfaction with rules and inherited restrictions.” (Abrams, 1993, p. 129)  In his Preface to the second edition of Lyrical Ballads Wordsworth declared that the revolutionary times called for writers to

chuse incidents and situations from common life, and to relate or describe them . . . in a selection of language really used by men; and . . . to throw over them a certain colouring of imagination.”(Wordsworth, 1802)

He also believed that in the “low and rustic life . . . the essential passions of the heart . . . mature . . . [with] less . . . restraint, and speak a plainer and more emphatic language”. (ibid)  This ideal of using colloquial language and common subject matter, linked with the expressing of emotions and feelings, was contrary to the altruistic precursive works that overflowed with nymphs, shepherds and purling brooks, and relied heavily on Greek and Latin mythological classics.

Both Wordsworth and Coleridge delved into the imagination, Coleridge coining the definition still used today that set it apart from fancy and involved the engagement of thought by the writer.  They used the landscape as the bearer of a unifying power until they went their separate theoretical ways. People were perceived and portrayed as individuals, not just as part of their culture, and readers were encouraged to link the protagonists of works to their authors.  There arose ideas of nationalism based on individuals as a group of people, rather than governmental, political.  Literature reflected this concentration on the individual, psychologically and socially.

The Romantic poet used Nature as a foil for culture – the grim cities that represented the evils of industrialisation, with their pollution, crowds, and smog.  For the Romanticists the countryside which they revered was created by God, as a psychological resource, as universal, supernatural and spiritual. Romanticists tried to find out the truth about the relationship between themselves and the world in which they lived, to see the world as a whole world, but in single focus showing the social changes.  They saw the natural world as an active agent with a moral quality that corrected mistakes, and were deeply concerned with the immensity of the world and universe.  They attempted to express the inexpressible, those extreme moments that escaped their grasp – the Sublime.

In the 1830s Romanticism crossed the Atlantic to America, where it was adopted and developed into a particular American poetic form.  Emerson wrote a manifesto for the first American Romantic poets with his article, ‘The American Scholar’, in which he stated that the scholar is the poet, the writer, the person of imagination, who should be everybody, each character that he/she creates.  Emerson was far more optimistic than the European Romantics. America was the centre of expansion, capitalism and exploitation were rampant, and the American psyche encompassed the idea of trying again until success was attained.

Romanticism became a dynamic force in American literary and social thought.  Emerson: “Instead of the sublime and beautiful, the mean, the low, the common are explored and poetised.  Literature of the poor, feelings of the child, philosophy of the street, and the meaning of household life are the topics of the time.”(Source: A Taylor, lecture) The everyday, the familiar is stressed rather than the exotic or ancient culture.  Emerson saw the Universe as a harmonious place into which man fitted harmoniously, and believed that specialisation isolated the individual from the rest of the world, spiritual and physical.  He called his form, of Romanticism, Transcendentalism.

Literally relating to Emerson’s views, Whitman took Romantic ideas and cast them in a new form, encompassing the qualities of equality, liberty and solidarity.  Born during the Depression, in 1819, Whitman responded to technology and its effect on people, wrote Civil War poems, and was for his time, openly gay.  Not only was his content revolutionary, but also his structure.  With his development of free verse, he broke down the distinctions between poetry and prose.

In his poem, ‘Song of Myself’ (Norton, 1983, p. 760) written in 1855, with its 52 sections for the 52 weeks of the year, Whitman created a structure of his own, using sentence length lines for speedy recitation, and repetition to form patterns at the beginning and at the end of lines.  He invited the reader to connect with liberty, to be in harmony and unity with the Cosmos. In part 1, he links the individuals within society – “And what I assume you shall assume/ For every atom belonging to me as good belongs to you.” (ibid, p. 760, lines 2-3).  In part 2, the ‘grass’ symbolizes anti-racist and anti-classist attitudes – the grass “Growing among black folks as among white,/ Kanuck, Tuckahoe, Congressman, Cuff, I give them the same, I receive them the same.” (ibid, p. 761, lines 108-109).  In part 11 Whitman sensualises the soul and spiritualizes the body, reinforcing the rights for men and women alike.  The sexual nature of the subject matter, and the prose-like structure with its lack of rhyme and metre, indicates how far the American Romanticists had moved from the Neoclassical restrictions.  In part 24, Whitman focussed on the highly personal with his autobiographical confessional statements –

          Through me forbidden voices,
Voices of sexes and lusts, voices veiled and I remove the veil,
Voices indecent by me clarified and transfigured.
(ibid, p. 762, lines 516-518)

His Civil War poems give cameos of the effects of war on man – each poem reflecting a different mood.  ‘Beat! Beat! Drums!’ is fast moving, intrusive, exhortative.  The poem disturbs the reader, as the drums disturb the lives of the people

Leave not the bridegroom quiet . . .
Nor the peaceful farmer any peace . . .
Make no parley -. . .
Mind not the timid – mind not the weeper or prayer,
Mind not the old man . . .
Let not the child’s voice be heard, nor the mother’s entreaties” (ibid, p. 769, lines 5, 6, 16, 17, 18, & 19)

Although an abolitionist, a great supporter of Lincoln, and the Union, Whitman saw the way War ripped individuals from their families and communities.  His poem ‘Cavalry Crossings Ford’ on the other hand is an imaginative blend of landscape and man – the cavalry men “take a serpentine course” along “the silvery river” in which their “splashing horses loitering stop to drink”. (ibid, p. 769, lines 2, & 3)  It is a visual picture of a peaceful moment, yet with the underlying message that they are en route to war.

While putting Emerson’s theories into practice, especially being everybody, Whitman used his imaginary vision.  His subjects were not gained first hand – he didn’t do a fraction of the things he wrote about.  Living mainly in Long Island, he wrote poems that utilised birds, the moon, the beach and sea/ocean.  As a narrator, Whitman dissolves into his landscape, creating an atmosphere to envelop the reader.  His poems, ‘Out of the Cradle Endlessly Rocking’ and ‘When Lilacs Last in the Dooryard Bloom’d’ are examples of his fascination with these subjects, incorporating the birds’ songs, of lost love and death respectively, as translations.  The birds themselves are the theme-bearers.

‘To a Locomotive in Winter’ depicts the man-made versus nature.  The clash of the powerful steam locomotive, with its “black cylindric body, golden brass and silvery steel,” (ibid, p. 781, line 4) and belching steam, with the “storm and buffeting gusts of wind and falling snow,” (ibid, p. 781, line 15) epitomises the evils of industrialisation as it destroys the harmony of the spiritual landscape.

  Law of thyself complete, thine own track firmly holding,
  Thy trills of shrieks by rocks and hills return’d,
  Launch’d o’er the prairies wide, across the lakes,
  To the free skies unpent and glad and strong.
   (ibid, p. 781, lines 21, 23-24)

Civilization will inexorably encroach on Nature, despite the efforts and concerns of cosmic individuals.

‘The Dismantled Ship’ depicts nature versus the man-made.  It reverses the order.  The “old, dismasted, gray and batter’d ship [is] disabled, done,” (ibid, p. 781, line 3) by the forces of the ocean – the pounding of waves, and the grinding of the beach sand.  Yet until it is completely gone it stands as a stark warning to other man-made things that battle the natural elements.

Whitman in his poetry tackled all the Romantic areas, breaking all the Neoclassic rules.  Only the use of the ‘thee, thy, thou’ remained as a reminder of what the Romanticists had left behind.

Jud House  14/11/1998


Abrams, M.H. (1993)  A Glossary of Literary Terms 6th Edition  Fort Worth:  Harcourt Brace College Publishers.

Allison, Barrows, Blake, Carr, Eastman, & English Jnr; + Stallworthy (essay) (1983)  The Norton Anthology of Poetry 3rd Edition.  New York:  W W Norton & Company. (REFERRED TO AS NORTON)

Wordsworth, W (1802) ‘Preface to Lyrical Ballads’ Revised Edition.

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